The Local Government Act 1894 resulted in the renaming of urban and rural sanitary districts to urban and rural district councils. These were created by the Public Health Act 1848 and the Local Government Act 1858. District Councils remained until 1974 apart from their jurisdiction over the hospitals which ended in 1948 on the creation of the National Health Service. Tetbury Rural District Council was one of 42 urban or rural districts within Gloucestershire.
The Medical Officer of Health prepared an annual report which included statistics, causes of death, poor law statistics, legislation in force, how the different services were performing, housing, infectious diseases and notifiable diseases, vacinations.